Cannabis Taxes and Section 280E: Canna Care v. The IRS

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Cannabis Taxes and Section 280E: Canna Care v. The IRS

Cannabis taxes

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit recently ruled on its second tax case regarding IRC §280E. Decisions from the Ninth Circuit are significant as they apply to the cannabis-friendly states of Alaska, California, Nevada, Oregon; and Washington. In Canna Care vs. the Commissioner, the Court of Appeals upheld the United States Tax Court’s ruling denying a California dispensary’s operating expense deductions under IRC §280E.

Background

Canna Care Inc. was a medical marijuana dispensary prohibited under California law from earning a profit on the sale of cannabis. On audit, the IRS applied IRC §280E to deny the deduction of all operating expenses, including substantial officer’s salaries and automobile expenses. Canna Care appealed the tax assessment to the U.S. Tax Court. Canna Care made the following three arguments before the U.S. Tax Court:

That medical marijuana is not a Schedule I controlled substance;
That Canna Care was not “trafficking” for purposes of IRC §280E because its activities were not illegal under the California Compassionate Use Act of 1996;
That the Tax Court decision in CHAMP was incorrect.

The Tax Court denied all three arguments and upheld the tax assessment against Canna Care. First the Tax Court reiterated that medical marijuana is a Schedule I controlled substance. Second, the Tax Court held that the sale of medical marijuana is always considered trafficking under IRC §280E, even when permitted by state law. Thus, operating expenses associated with the sale, manufacturing or production of cannabis are always disallowed under IRC §280E.

Third, the Tax Court held that the CHAMP had been correctly decided. Canna Care’s argument that its sole business was providing charitable work like the taxpayer in CHAMP was without merit. The Tax Court held that because Canna Care’s only business was selling cannabis, none of its operating expenses could be deducted under IRC §280E. The Tax Court noted that Canna Care arguably had a second trade or business selling clothing and could have argued these expenses should be deducted. As that fact was not stipulated in its petition, the Tax Court could not consider that issue on the merits.

Appeal to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals

Canna Care appealed to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. None of the arguments before the Tax Court were made on appeal. Instead, Canna Care raised three new arguments, two Continue Reading

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